Cunard’s Queen Elizabeth Leaves UK Registry Today – Other Cruise News: Celebrity Adds A Second UK Ship – Bermuda Seeks Smaller Ship for 2013
by Kevin Griffin
Today sees the first Cunard Queen ever to be registered outside the UK while still under Cunard ownership. Last week, after a month of public speculation, Cunard Line announced that it would transfer all three of its Queens to Bermudian flag. That the first ship would be transferred as early as today, however, was unexpected. Behind it all, many suspect that the official reason for this, being able to offer weddings at sea, is just a cover to help Cunard avoid the mess that is the UK’s new Equality Act, that came into effect this summer and will adversely affect the competitiveness of UK shipping. Elsewhere in the UK, Celebrity Cruises will bring a second ship to Southampton when it bases the Celebrity Constellation there next autumn for a series of eight cruises ranging from a 2-night Channel cruise to Amsterdam to a 15-night Transatlantic voyage to Miami. And with word that Holland America’s Veendam may not be back in 2013, Bermuda is seeking another ship to call at Hamilton.
THIS WEEK’S STORY
Cunard’s Queen Elizabeth Leaves UK Registry Today
Last week, after a month of public speculation, Cunard Line announced that it would transfer all three of its Queens to the Bermudian register. That the first ship is being transferred as early as today, however, was unexpected. Behind the move, many suspect that the official reason for this, being able to offer weddings at sea, is just a cover to help Cunard to remove its ships from under the mess that is the UK’s Equality Act 2010, legislation from the last Labour government that came into effect this summer.
The new Equality Act will adversely affect UK shipping by doing away with differential pay, whereby foreign nationals hired from abroad have been paid less than UK nationals. The fact that two ships are changing registry immediately – the Queen Elizabeth today and the Queen Victoria on Thursday, with the Queen Mary 2 to follow in five weeks – leads to this suspicion, especially as no weddings will be on offer before April 2012, and details of these packages will not even be announced until November.
Here is the sequence of events.
On July 3, 2010, after last year’s election, UK home secretary Theresa May announced that the UK would implement the previous Labour Government’s Equality Act in October. On the same day, the BBC made the first warning, reporting that “some shipping companies have complained that the laws will force them to quit the UK because they would have to pay UK rates to foreign-based seafarers who do not have the burden of British living costs.”
Prior to the Equality Act, shipping companies operating UK-flag ships have been able to engage seafarers from outside the UK at wages that are below UK scale. This differential pay had been sanctioned under section 9 of the Race Relations Act 1976, and made no exceptions for EU or other nationals.
Workers recruited outside the UK could lawfully be paid lower rates than UK nationals on the same ship. But to the dismay of UK shipowners this exemption was not retained by Labour in the new omnibus Equality Act it passed in 2010.
On June 9, 2010, Coalition shipping minister Mike Penning released a Labour-commissioned review of the options of either (1) outlawing differential pay or (2) allowing it but without application to EU or European Economic Area nationals. The review, by an outside consultant called Susan Carter, with no experience of shipping, concluded that differential pay should no longer be allowed.
Her conclusion met with strong reaction from the shipping community. The UK Chamber of Shipping, in its response, entitled “Ill-informed and ill-considered report threatens UK-flag deep-sea fleet” described it as displaying “a breathtaking ignorance of the nature of the shipping industry.”
It has since been estimated that the combined potential increase in annual labour costs to UK shipowners is in the region of $412 million.
Lloyd’s List added on June 17 that “The industry’s common sense view is that making the UK the only flag of any significance to require all seafarers to be on the same salary irrespective of nationality would deal a severe blow to the Red Ensign.”
Penning, sympathetic to UK shipowners, was quoted as saying that the act, as drafted, “would decimate the fleet.”
This echoed the Chamber of Shipping’s view, which predicted that implementation would spell the demise of the Red Ensign, and that UK-registered ships would immediately switch to a cheaper option. The Chamber then proposed differential rates of pay related to the cost of living in seafarers’ home countries, but despite a legal opinion that this would be acceptable to the EU, the idea was not accepted by the government.
On January 27, 2011, following a complaint from the UK’s National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (RMT), the European Commission requested the UK government to amend its legislation allowing for differential pay of non-UK seafarers. The government had two months to comply, failing which the commission could decide to refer the UK to the EU Court of Justice.
Penning, in response, pledged to do the “absolute bare minimum” to comply with the EU requirements and to legislate in a way that minimised the potential threat to the UK flag, which he was responsible to protect.
On May 13, 2011, Penning issued a statement saying that: “As the law currently stands, section 9 of the Race Relations Act, 1976, provides that it is not unlawful for seafarers to be paid different rates of pay on the basis of their nationality if they were recruited outside Great Britain.”
This includes seafarers from EEA States and designated States … with particular bilateral agreements with the European Union. The European Commission has been investigating a complaint that UK law does not comply with European Law and in January this year it issued a reasoned opinion on that basis. In order to meet its Treaty obligations, the Government is obliged to bring UK law into line with European law.”
He added that “The international nature of the shipping industry requires further clarity in specifying to which seafarers, working on which vessels, operating in which waters … the Act applies… the Act is also wide enough to legislate in respect of differential pay. The Regulations will, if approved, provide that it is not unlawful to offer to pay or pay different rates of pay to seafarers … if a person applies for work as a seafarer or is recruited as a seafarer outside Great Britain.”
On August 1, 2011, the Equality Act was implemented as it applies to shipping . A satisfactory solution for all had not been found, however, as it was no longer lawful to have differential rates of pay for EU nationals, no matter where they were recruited. The regulations treated ships like landbound factories, prohibiting discrimination against EU nationals on UK-flag ships trading wholly or partly in UK.
But it also meant that market rates that had been negotiated previously were no longer permissable. The new Equality Act, an encyclopaedia of all British equality legislation, totally misunderstands the nature of shipping and how it has to compete internationally in the space between nations. And while, the unions, particularly the RMT that had intervened in Brussels, lauded the day, they may yet come to rue it.
On September 23, after a polite few weeks’ interval, Peter Shanks, president and managing director of Cunard Line, came out talking of weddings, telling The Financial Times that “It’s no secret that weddings at sea are now very big business… However this business is currently denied to us, as our fleet is registered in the UK, and we have for some time been examining our options.
One is to stay as we are and forgo our share of this lucrative business; a second is to designate a ‘wedding ship’ and change that ship’s registry alone; and the third is to maximise the opportunity and re-register all our ships. I must stress that at present no decision has been made.”
Shanks made no mention of the disastrous effect the Equality Act 2010 might have on UK shipping.
Cunard Line was the last UK-based cruise line to fly the UK flag as first Princess and then P&O had abandoned the UK for Bermuda some time before. P&O perfomed 371 weddings in 2008, the last year they seem to have statistics for. But this could hardly be the real reason behind leaving UK registry.
That’s about one wedding a day – at £1,100 each, the P&O Cruises starting price, that’s insignificant over a fleet of four or five ships. Even at £10,000 each, it’s not a great deal in the scale of things.
And do Cunard passengers strike one as being the ideal candidates for weddings at sea? So although first Princess and then P&O had been making money on them, weddings would seem not really to be the main issue here.
But had Cunard come out in a negative way against the new Equality Act it would have been on a hiding to nothing. As well as appearing to be against equality, it might have appeared to be anti-European, or worse yet been portrayed in the vulgar press with the typical hoary tale about employing slave labour.
Even though it might have looked suspicious, much better to come out in favour of doing something positive, hence weddings at sea, with which its sister lines already had some experience. However, the announcement has done no good for Cunard’s relationship with its most loyal clientele, many of whom are up in arms over the deflagging and threatening to boycott.
The Equality Act 2010 will now force owners of UK-flag ships to pay UK wages to Portuguese, Poles, Romanians and other Europeans. It will not apply to non-Europeans such as Indians and Filipinos, but it may yet apply to Russians and Algerians.If the annual wage bill on a container ship could be £400,000 higher if foreign sailors’ pay is raised to UK levels, what might it be on a cruise ship?
The Chamber of Shipping in its 2010/11 Report stated that around 260 UK-registered ships engaged in international trades were operated by members and that 230 would be reflagged if differential pay were outlawed. Even if differential rates of pay were still to be allowed for non-EU seafarers, the Chamber projected that 200 ships would de-flag.
On October 19, the other shoe finally dropped – Cunard let it be known that all three Queens would be transferred to Bermudian registry. The Queen Elizabeth is switching registry today in Amsterdam, the Queen Victoria on Thursday in Piraeus and the Queen Mary 2 on Thursday, December 1st, in Hamburg.
The transfers will all occur in foreign ports. On the ships’ sterns will now be painted Hamilton instead of Southampton (and if they need new letters there is a sufficient overlap between the two that they will only have to buy an “I” and an “L” for each ship). More seriously, this will mark the first time in 171 years that Cunard will not have a single ship registered in Great Britain.
One odd thing about this exercise is that this is not really a reflagging exercise at all, as the three Queens will continue to fly exactly the same Red Ensigns that they have flown all along. The Bermuda merchant flag was changed some time ago to remove the Bermuda shield from the fly and the British version was recognised officially in 2002.
The reason for this is quite obvious as the shield depicts a sinking ship, the Sea Venture, which foundered on the reefs of Bermuda with its first settlers in 1609. (There was a time in the 1960s however, when, for tax reasons, part of the Canadian fleet actually flew the “sinking ship” version. Before Canada adopted its own flag in 1965, it was difficult to distinguish the Bermudian flag from the Canadian one, both being Red Ensigns with shields in the fly).
What the Queen might make of this change of registry would be interesting to know, but of course she is also the Queen of Bermuda, a British overseas territory with the UK responsible for defence and foreign affairs. The Queen has christened two of the three Queens, the Queen Mary 2 on January 8, 2004, and the Queen Elizabeth just over a year ago, on October 11, 2010, not to mention the Queen Elizabeth 2 before them.
Cunard and weddings aside, the UK register is no longer as competitive as it was. With big owners such as CMA CGM and Evergreen Line, among others, having taken advantage of its tonnage tax provisions, will Cunard be the start of an exodus?
Ironically, this move leaves the P&O Cruises Australia fleet, hardly ever seen in the UK, as the only important cruise ships on the UK register. Meanwhile, Bermuda is a great place to park your ships and control your costs while the UK cleans up its registry problems with the EU and becomes competitive again.
Celebrity Adds Second UK Ship
Celebrity has been doing so well in the UK market that next autumn it will base a second ship in Southampton, when it brings the Celebrity Constellation to the UK for a 2-night Channel cruise to Amsterdam on September 5 and a series of half a dozen 12-night wine cruises to France, Spain and Portugal and overnights at some ports. This series closes with a 15-night Transatlantic cruise from Southampton to Miami on November 30.
These cruises will replace eight eastern Mediterranean cruises that had previously been planned and are a good reflection on how Celebrity regards the UK market. In addition to the Constellation, the Celebrity Eclipse is based in Southampton for the whole of the season from spring through autumn and will return for her third consecutive season in 2013.
The last time Celebrity’s predecessor line, Chandris Cruises, had two ships working out of Southampton was almost forty years ago, in the early 1970s, with the Regina Magna and Regina Prima.
Bermuda Seeks Smaller Ship for 2013
Coincidental with the news that Cunard is re-flagging to Bermuda comes news that Holland America Line has given notice that after the 2012 season it no longer wishes to continue its service between New York and Hamilton’s downtown Front Street.
The Veendam went onto the route in 2009, a return for Holland America Line, once a regular on the New York-Bermuda route, after f twenty-five years. Previous to the Veendam’s return, there had been no regular service to Front Street in 2009, all the ships calling on Bermuda now being too big to navigate the narrow channel into Hamilton.
Before that, the Azamara Journey completed a single season on the run in 2007, replacing the Zenith. All the previous Front Street regulars, the Horizon, Zenith, Empress of the Seas and Norwegian Crown now trade in Europe.
With Cunard moving to Bermudian flag, some have even suggested why not transfer the Ocean Princess from Princess Cruises to Cunard, install Grill Class restaurants where the alternative restaurants are and operate her between Manhattan, St George’s (which is lacking service since the Veendam had to stop tendering from outside that port last year) and Front Street.
The regular New York to Front Street run dated back to 1864, and had seen regular service every year with the exception of the two world wars, when there was still some sort of service. But 2008 was the first time the Manhattan to Front Street run had not had a regular ship. So the search is now on for a replacement for the Veendam.
The Veendam is 720 feet long and the R-ship class, to which the Azamara Journey and Ocean Princess belong, are just under 600 feet. But most cruise ships now assigned to Bermuda are too big to get into Hamilton and have to go to the newer cruise berths at Dockyard, but these are far from town. Oceania will next year send the Regatta, another R-ship, in to Front Street twice but the 777-foot Marina will have to go to Dockyard. Bermuda expects 385,200 cruise ship visitors this year, compared with 347,931 in 2010.
2010 Winners and Losers Among Cruise Ports
Last week we reported on which cruise ports were up and which were down in terms of traffic, as well as the growth in cruise business in New York and and the downturn at Vancouver. We would like to point out that the source for the statistics used in that item was Cruise Insight magazine, for which cruise expert Tony Peisley collected the data.
(Kevin Griffin is managing director of specialist cruise agency The Cruise People Ltd in London, England. For further information concerning cruises mentioned in this article readers can visit his blog)